MADRES WICHÍ: CUANDO SER Y CUANTOS NIÑOS TENER

Marta Graciela MENDEZ, Stella Ofelia FERRARINI

Resumen


Las estrategias reproductivas están enmarcadas por las limitaciones ecológicas específicas ante las que cada grupo humano se enfrenta. Los patrones naturales de la reproducción de los Wichí se exploran tomando en consideración la energía disponible que subyace a su ancestral patrón de cazadores-recolectores. En la pubertad, cuando se frena la inversión en crecimiento, las mujeres comienzan la inversión en reproducción. Afrontan, entonces, una negociación entre continuar su crecimiento un tiempo más o comenzar su ciclo reproductivo. Una vez comenzada la etapa reproductiva el equilibrio debe establecerse entre la energía reservada a la reproducción y la dirigida a mantenerse y poder llegar a una nueva fase reproductiva. Se analizan las historias reproductivas de mujeres Wichí para indagar acerca de las decisiones sobre cuándo comienzan la reproducción y cuál es el tamaño de la progenie resultante. La edad media de la primera maternidad fue 18,23 años y la longitud media de los intervalos entre nacimientos de 3,2 años. Se demuestra que las madres que comenzaron antes su reproducción tuvieron historias reproductivas más rápidas. La fx arrojó un valor estimado de la reproducción individual de 7,5, valor que se discute y compara con el de otras poblaciones aborígenes chaqueñas y del mundo. La edad temprana a la primera maternidad de las mujeres Wichí y la tasa reproductiva alta con intervalos entre nacimientos de longitud moderada delinean el modelo de maximización de la distribución de energía destinada a la reproducción a lo largo del curso de sus vidas, en contextos socio-ecológicos de recursos limitados.

Palabras clave


edad al primer nacimiento; estrategia reproductiva; fecundidad; Wichí

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Referencias


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